Real science is never settled, and anyone who has certainty on such things is not qualified to discuss it.
This page is intended as a primer pointing out the dismal state of scientific studies, focusing mostly on medicine. Numerous links are possible, but the best and most approachable ones are found here.
Tip: when you see “a new study finds...”, translate that into “a new steaming pile of manure...” and you will have better odds than 99% of the population at getting things right. The field doesn’t matter.
Reality of science today
Bad science is not new. At the least, follow the money will never lead you wrong, even when it shouldn’t work.
Here in 2024, this rigorous 2005 Ioannidis paper is more relevant than ever:s
“for many current scientific fields, claimed research findings may often be simply accurate measures of the prevailing bias...”
Here’s a sampler of the dismal crediblity of 'science' today:
“follow the science” ==> narrative propaganda
How to game the system
In addition to outright fraud (common), there are numerous ways to game the system. Once you understand the gears of the machine, things will start making sense.
The credibility of scientific studies should first be evaluated not from a science/medical viewpoint, but from a skeptical/pyschological viewpoint including follow the money eg funding and connections, psychological biases and motivations, bad methodology, etc. How many peer reviews skip that step entirely? Probably all of them.